If your blood pressure remains constantly low and does not cause any problems, it is almost never serious and does not need to be treated. But if it is associated with symptoms, it indicates an underlying problem and needs treatment.
Your doctor will try to diagnose and treat the underlying medical problem that causes low blood pressure. However, the cause of low blood pressure is often not clear.
Some diet and lifestyle changes can help treat chronic low blood pressure.
Diet and lifestyle changes that your doctor may recommend to treat low blood pressure include:
- Diet with more or added salt.
- Decreased consumption of caffeine.
- Drinking plenty of nonalcoholic fluids- about 8 glasses per day (water, juice, rehydration solution, coconut water).
- Increasing intake of fluids during hot weather, or while you are sick.
- Evaluating your medications (prescription, over-the-counter medications and supplements) to identify the probable cause.
- Engaging in regular physical activities or exercises.
- Caution while rising from a lying down or sitting position.
- While sleeping, elevate the head of your bed by about 5 to 20 degrees.
- Avoid lifting heavy objects, or straining on the toilet.
- Avoid prolonged standing, exposure to hot weather, hot showers and spas.
- If you have dizziness after eating –eat smaller and more frequent meals and rest after meals.
- Use of elastic support (compression) stockings, if needed.
Medications for Low Blood Pressure
If these diet and lifestyle changes do not reduce your low blood pressure symptoms, you may need medication.
Medications which are effective in treating low blood pressure include;
- Fludrocortisone: Fludrocortisone is a mineralocorticosteroid which is effective for treating low blood pressure and postural hypotension. It helps the body to conserve or retain sodium. This results in fluid retention by the kidneys and improvement of blood pressure.
- Midodrine: This drug stimulates the receptors in the arterioles (smallest arteries) and veins. This results in an increase in blood pressure. Midodrine has been shown to be effective for treatment of chronic low blood pressure and postural hypotension.