How does Insulin Work in Type 2 Diabetes

Updated at: Oct 04, 2012
How does Insulin Work in Type 2 Diabetes

In type 2 diabetes, insulin regulates the blood glucose (sugar) level and helps to maintain a healthy body.

Gunjan Rastogi
DiabetesWritten by: Gunjan RastogiPublished at: Oct 04, 2012

How does Insulin Work in Type 2 Diabetes

In type 2 diabetes, synthetic insulin, which is largely similar to normal insulin, is given. It is believed that there are four basic types of insulin, namely, long-acting, intermediate acting, regular or short acting and rapid acting. When insulin enters into the body, it stimulates the liver and muscle cells to pick glucose from the blood. As the body organs start absorbing the glucose from the blood to generate energy, the overall blood sugar level decreases. Insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes regulates the level of glucose in the blood.[Read: Early Insulin Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes]


The standard level of blood glucose in a normal and healthy individual should be 90 milligrams per deciliter. When the pancreas detects that there is an increase in this level, it produces insulin. For the easy understanding of how insulin travels through the body, you must know that insulin is carried in the blood plasma (the liquid portion of blood). Studies show that the insulin binds itself to globulins, which are  proteins of larger size.


When insulin and blood travel through the liver and the muscle cells, the receptors in those locations grab the insulin, which in turn binds to the receptors.  Here, the process of glycogenesis (formation of glycogen from glucose) commences. The glucose converts itself into energy so that body cells can take it.


Why Type 2 Diabetics need to take Insulin?


Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong disease that disturbs the way our body absorbs food for producing energy. To understand how insulin works in type 2 diabetes, it is important to know that a normal healthy body produces its own insulin in the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body cells develop resistance against insulin or when the pancreas  cannot produce adequate amount of insulin. Insulin is a body-aiding hormone that provides energy to the cells from sugar.  When insulin fails to perform its function, excess of sugar builds up in the blood. The accumulation of the excess sugar leads to the development of diabetes that has various complications such as neuropathy, nephropathy, foot damage, liver and kidney damage and cardiovascular diseases.  Usually, type 2 diabetics are prescribed with insulin injection and they need to maintain a healthy lifestyle by consuming well-balanced diet and following exercise regimen.


[Read: Health Care Issues with Diabetes]


Once the insulin is injected in the body, it starts helping in lowering the blood glucose (sugar) level. In non-diabetics, insulin is produced by the pancreas when glucose level is too high, but in type 2 diabetics, insulin injections are given.

Read more articles on Understand Type 2 Diabetics Mellitus.




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