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7 Reasons for an Agonising Menstrual Pain

Menstruation comes with its share of nuances like cramping bloating and irritability. But, you know there is a problem when menstrual pain becomes tortuous. Here are 7 reasons that could make your period excruciatingly painful.

Women's Health By Ariba Khaliq / Nov 13, 2014

Is your “That Time of the Month” Painful?

An approaching period brings along cramping, bloating and irritability. All these nuances are normal during this time of the month. However, if your cramps are crippling, you bleed heavily, experience serious fatigue, and your life gets affected by other symptoms, you have a problem. Consult your doctor. Here are 7 conditions known to cause painful periods.



When the lining of the uterus – the endometrium – is found outside of the uterus on other structures throughout the pelvis, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder, pelvic floor and in more severe cases the bowel, diaphragm, liver, lungs, and even the brain, the condition is known as endometriosis. Though it is not really known why endometriosis causes menstrual pain, it may occur based on the location and presentation of endometriosis. When the Endometrium gets displaced, it can cause adhesions, chronic inflammation, cysts, and internal bleeding. All these trigger agonising pelvic pain.

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This condition is similar to endometriosis, bar the endometrium implants itself outside of the uterus, it gets embedded deep within the uterine muscle. If a woman has adenomyosis, her uterus acts like a bruised muscle and its symptoms are painful central cramping and painful intercourse. This pain can hurt up until a day or two later. Adenomyosis is usually seen in women over age 30 who have already had children. However, it has been seen in teenagers as well.

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Uterine Fibroid

Uterine fibroids can develop in as many as three out of four women but will not exhibit any symptoms in most of them. Fibroids can be microscopic in size or may be large enough to distort the uterus’s shape. They may increase the amount of bleeding and the severity of menstrual pain. The reason behind the pain is that the uterus must contract (cramp) to expel the large blood clots that often result from heavy bleeding.

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Copper IUD

A copper IUD is a temporary, non-hormonal form of birth control that can act as a barrier for preventing pregnancy for up to 10 years. It is placed in your uterus and works by releasing copper, which immobilizes sperm and prevents egg implantation. It can make you periods heavier and more painful, especially in the first few cycles after insertion. But, in case your copper IUD has survived years, and you suddenly develop pain, look for another reason. Your IUD isn’t the culprit.

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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of the female reproductive tract most commonly caused by untreated sexually transmitted infections. If the condition isn’t treated, it can cause inflammation, scarring, painful menstruation, and infertility. During menstruation, hormones influence the uterus and surrounding structures – including the scar tissue and adhesions – which can increase inflammation, bleeding, and pain.

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Uterine Defects

The uterus of a female foetus develops from two structures known as mullerian ducts while it is in its mother’s womb. If the uterus doesn’t form correctly, it can cause infertility, painful menstruation, and painful intercourse.

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Primary Dysmenorrhoea

A structural defect or a reproductive condition known as primary dysmenorrhoea causes unexplainable cramps at some point in almost half of all menstruating women. The increased or imbalanced levels of prostaglandins – hormone-like fatty acids that stimulate the uterus to contract cause these cramps, says the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

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