There are several diseases that may escalate the level of blood sugar in the body, the condition medically termed as hyperglycaemia. Blood sugar level is the denotation of glucose in the bloodstream. Presence of glucose is essential for human body; it acts as a source of energy to the cells. Inadequate blood sugar levels may damage several body parts and mechanisms.
Diseases that increase blood sugar levels are:
- The diabetic condition has a correlation with hyperglycaemia.
- In type 1 diabetes mellitus, body lacks sufficient insulin, which makes blood sugar levels to rise.
- Body is unable to use insulin effectively in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
- Development of diabetes and its complications can be reduced by monitoring blood sugar levels and administering the condition through exercise, dietary changes and medication.
2. Glucagonoma Syndrome
- Cancerous disease processes can also raise blood sugar levels.
- Slow-growing cancerous tumours located in pancreatic cells produce high levels of the hormone glucagon to cause the glucagonoma syndrome.
- Individuals of over 50 years are affected by the disease.
- Consequences of the syndrome include necrolytic migratory erythema, blood clots, diabetes, weight loss, physiological dysfunctions, anaemia and neurological disorders.
- Medications are prescribed by a health care provider to decrease the level of glucagon, which in turn reduces the level of blood sugar.
3. Rabson-Mendenhall Syndrome
- Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome is indicated by CIGNA, a condition that occurs due to severe insulin resistance.
- The genetic syndrome puts forth abnormalities visible on the face, head and defects of the teeth and nails.
- Skin abnormalities such as discolouration (acanthosis nigricans) and thickening of the skin are other complications of Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome. Skin problems usually occur around the skin folds such as neck, groin and under the arms.
Measuring Glucose Levels
1. Fasting Blood Glucose
- Glucose levels should be examined after having fasted for at least 12 hours as factors such as food, exercise and stress can have an influence on the reading.
- 70 to 100 mg/dl is considered as an acceptable blood glucose level.
2. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
- Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is usually done to figure out the diabetic condition.
- Glucose level between 140 and 199 mg/dl is ideal.
3. Haemoglobin A1c
- Regarded as the best technique to assess blood glucose level, haemoglobin A1c test reflects the average glucose levels over the lifespan of red blood cells.
- Variation of 4 to 6 percent is normal, but difference beyond 6.5 percent indicates serious health concerns.
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